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University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Transportation Systems Engineering

Teacher Resource Center

Lesson Overview
Lesson Title:
Stopping Distance

Teachers:
Ms. Chelsea Hoglund (Primary)

Brief Description:
This is a great lesson for the beginning of the year to introduce Think-Pair-Share for the students to learn how to work in groups and get comfortable discussing a new topic. This is also used for students to work on substituting values into a formula.

Topics Introduced:
Group work/Substitution/Formulas

Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics Curriculum Framework Components Addressed:
Transportation Operations
Logistics Planning and Management Services
Transportation Systems/ Infrastructure Planning, Management and Regulation
Health, Safety and Environmental Management
Suggested Grade Levels:
6th Grade
7th Grade
8th Grade
9th Grade
10th Grade
11th Grade
12th Grade

Subjects:
Mathematics
Science
Industrial Technology
Engineering
Standards Taught:
8.1.2 Science 2010
5.4.1 Math 2009
12.1.3 Math 2009

Lesson Information
Learning Expectations:

The expectation of the students is to learn about the safety of stopping distances and for the students to become more aware of the dangers of speeding and distractions. Also, I will expect the students to become more comfortable substituting numbers into difficult formulas to solve real life problems and working with partners and groups to share ideas and solve problems.

Plan Of Action:

First 2 minutes/introduction

Concept: _Students will be able to understand the concept of a vehicle stopping and the necessary distance to come to a complete stop. Students could also start to understand the concept of how speed affects the stopping distance.

Terms/Vocabulary: distance (how is distance measured: i.e. miles/kilometers), velocity/speed, reaction, braking, grade, equation & labels

Exploration/Data Collection by the Students:
The students will be directed to get a calculator, paper, pencil and worksheet as they enter. They will sit any where in the room.
Introduction (first 2 minutes) Showing and following a power point outline.
Show video (from YouTube) No discussion after video
Students get out WS, show simulation from power point, have 5 different students choose five different speeds, fill information out on the WS together. I will show the simulation of the five students chosen speeds.
Students will spend the next 3 minutes analyzing and writing observations or things they noticed from the simulation or video.
Students will then pair up for the next two minutes discuss and share their observations and come up with more.
Then for the next minute a pair will work with another pair to share observations. (teacher is only directing and observing at this point)
Each group will share two observations and the teacher will write them on the board.

Concept Invention/Using Students Data to Invent/Discover the Concept
Teacher directs discussion while trying to lead them to the concept of ‘stopping distance’.
Teacher will ask inquiry questions if the students do not touch on them. (see key questions for examples) Using those questions the students will come up with the concept of the lesson.

Introduce the vocabulary/terms that have not been touched on: distance (how is distance measured: i.e. miles/kilometers), velocity/speed, reaction, braking, grade, equation & labels

After this we will talk about the new vocabulary the students may have learned throughout the lesson. If they did not come up with certain vocabulary that the teacher wanted (see vocabulary above) then the teacher will lead the students to that vocabulary using key questions.

KEY QUESTIONS
What do you notice about the differences in the table? What does this make you think of? What can you tell you me about stopping distance? Can you make any conclusions about the table? What does a driver need to think about when they stop a car? What can change the stopping distance? What does the reaction distance depend on? What do we need to stop for? How can you stop in a shorter distance? Does the speed of a car change the distance that it takes for the car to stop? Would the size of the car change the stopping distance? What if you were going down a hill? What if you were going up a hill? What if it was icy? What if it I had a load of rocks in the back of my truck? What if I was listening to loud music? What if I was talking on my phone? What happens if I lose my glasses and have to drive without them? What if I’m on a gravel road? What if I have bad brakes? What if I have a broken foot and cannot push hard on the pedals

Applying/Expanding the Concept
Teacher will introduce the formula. Then the teacher will pair the students together and have them work as a pair to solve the 2 scenarios. The teacher will give the students 5 minutes to work on scenario 1 and then the class will discuss their answers. Then the teacher will give the students 5 minutes to work on scenario 2 then the class will discuss the answers.
**At this point you will need to discuss why the formula is so far off of the simulation. The simulation is based off of the reaction time of you clicking the mouse where as in a car you will not react that fast as you will have to see it then take your foot off of the gas pedal and push the brake. The average reaction time is 2.5 seconds which is used in the formula.
For closure the teacher will challenge the students to work backwards with the formula. Each student will estimate one answer and the closest pair will win a prize.

Evaluation (Formative/Summative)

Teacher will observe students while working together in pairs. The teacher will evaluate each student on use of vocabulary, participation, and understanding of the concept by asking students to verbalize the concept to a partner before leaving.

Data Set Used:

Data will be gathered by the students using the simulation website during the lesson. Data will vary depending on the different speeds the students choose and the reaction time of the teacher.

Materials Needed:

Projector
Worksheet
Pencil/Pen
Whiteboard/Markers
Powerpoint
Computer

Preparation Period:

-5 minutes to plug in the computer to the projector/smart board

-The powerpoint takes approximately 50 minutes to go through that is for the entire lesson. If you open the powerpoint at the bottom of each slide it shows you how long each section will take. The first video is about 1-2 minutes. You will also have wait time during the think-pair-share.

Implementation Period:

-45 minute lesson

-5 minutes for warm-up and closure

Science, Math, Engineering and / or Technology Implications:

Students will use the scientific method to analyze data and solve real life problems. The students will learn about transportation engineering by learning about stopping distance and the need to be able to calculate these distances when building roads and deciding speed limits. The lesson uses simulations for technology.

Unexpected Results:

Some things that happened during my lesson that were unexpected is that the students did much better with the level and even though they had never seen anything like this before and really did not have any previous knowledge, they still could have done higher level work, so I suggest not bringing the level of the lesson down unless absolutely necessary.

Considerations for Diversity in Education:

For the elementary levels:
Formulas will not be used at all only discussion

For my lower level students:
No introduction of grades and keep the formula very simple to help simplify the lesson.


For my higher level students:
Introduction of grades to challenge the students and make the formula more difficult. I will also give them more challenging problems. (Look at the higher level formula word doc attached)


Lesson Files
Stopping Distance Power Point
This is the power point for the outline of the lesson. The links are hyper-linked in and there are 3 practice problems at the end. I have also written in notes in the power point that explains each slide and walks you through the lesson.
[size: 2362368] [date uploaded: Jun 23, 2011, 11:36 am ]

Extra Resources
More websites and videos that can be implemented into the lesson along with the two links that are used in the lesson.
[size: 32256] [date uploaded: Jun 23, 2011, 11:37 am ]

Student Data Sheet
This is the handout that has the data table, room for observations, formulas and space to work out the practice problems from the power point.
[size: 39936] [date uploaded: Jun 23, 2011, 11:38 am ]

Higher Level Formula
This is the higher level formula for upper level students.
[size: 24064] [date uploaded: Jun 23, 2011, 11:40 am ]

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